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Go vs Java: What are the differences?
Go: An open source programming language that makes it easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient software. Go is expressive, concise, clean, and efficient. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multicore and networked machines, while its novel type system enables flexible and modular program construction. Go compiles quickly to machine code yet has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. It's a fast, statically typed, compiled language that feels like a dynamically typed, interpreted language; Java: A concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, language specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. There are lots of applications and websites that will not work unless you have Java installed, and more are created every day. Java is fast, secure, and reliable. From laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java is everywhere!.
Go and Java can be primarily classified as "Languages" tools.
"High-performance", "Simple, minimal syntax" and "Fun to write" are the key factors why developers consider Go; whereas "Great libraries", "Widely used" and "Excellent tooling" are the primary reasons why Java is favored.
Go is an open source tool with 59.6K GitHub stars and 8.25K GitHub forks. Here's a link to Go's open source repository on GitHub.
According to the StackShare community, Java has a broader approval, being mentioned in 2378 company stacks & 2633 developers stacks; compared to Go, which is listed in 892 company stacks and 589 developer stacks.
I'm a developer for over 9 years, and most of this time I've been working with C# and it is paying my bills until nowadays. But I'm seeking to learn other languages and expand the possibilities for the next years.
Now the question... I know Ruby is far from dead but is it still worth investing time in learning it? Or would be better to take Python, Golang, or even Rust? Or maybe another language.
Thanks in advance.
Hi Caue, I don't think any language is dead in 2022, and we still see a lot of Cobol and Fortran out there, so Ruby is not going to die for sure. However, based on the market, you'll be better off learning Goland and Python. For example, for data science, machine learning, and similar areas, Python is the default language while backend API, services, and other general purpose Goland is becoming the preferred.
I hope this helps.
I feel most productive using go. It has all the features I need and doesn't throw road blocks in your way as you learn. Rust is the most difficult to learn as borrow checking and other features can puzzle a newcomer for days. Python is a logical next step as it has a huge following, many great libraries, and one can find a gig using python in a heartbeat. Ruby isn't awful, it's just not that popular as the others.
Another reason to use python is that it is not compiled. You can muck around in the interpreter until you figure things out. OTOH, that makes it less performant. You really need to think about your use cases, your interest in lower-lever versus high-level coding, and so on.
Then, I have learned and worked with Golang. I use it where I think I would need a slightly better performance than in Python. Plus, relatively small and self-contained executable is a great thing to have. If you plan to write distributed systems, extend Kubernetes or do similar things I think Golang is a great choice. It's also simple and straightforward, especially when you want to do effective multithreading. Although I don't like that Golang is more low-level than Python. Sometimes I feel like I need to implement myself too much things.
Now, about Rust. It's my second try to learn Rust. First time I decided to learn Golang as I understood it in 30mins or so while I was struggling to compile/do anything meaningful there for quite a bit. So I personally don't think Rust is super easy. I have got back to learning Rust as it's going to fill one of gaps in my problem solving toolkit - let me write low-level system programs (e.g. linux kernel modules). I don't want to learn "obsolete" C/C++ (my reasons are similar to why Google has recently introduced Carbon - a replacement for C/C++ codebases). If you are not going to tight your life with system-like programming, Rust may be an overkill for you.
Finally, I have never coded in Ruby, so are not going to comment it.
Because it opens endless possibilities you can do anything and everything you want to. from ai to app development to web development.
I'm almost same position as you. 8 years same company with c#. I tried both Python and Golang. I like working with Golang. Check this litte go doc. After reading this document and following its examples, I decided to work with "go" https://www.openmymind.net/assets/go/go.pdf
Since you are very experienced, picking up a language will not take you more than a week. Rust is a very new language. Many startups are still experimenting with it. Golang is very popular nowadays. You can see a lot of golang jobs in the market. The best part is, compiled code is single binary and has a minimal footprint. Rails is a compelling framework; believe me, many websites like Shopify, GitHub, GitLab, etc., are powered by the rails framework. You can also leverage the power of metaprogramming in Ruby. Python is memory and CPU intensive. It is not as performant as the other three. If you want to go into Data Science, Python is the language. Good luck, buddy. Feel free to connect with me: https://twitter.com/avirajkhare00
Either Python or Golang, for all the enlightened reasons already mentionned in all advices/comments :) Enjoy!
it is highly recommended to take a look at that survey
I am planning to implement a ETL test system for checking data quality and business use cases. I am confused on what stack to use. Any advice on the below will be very helpful.
- Any existing frameworks and its source code for help
- Any other stack apart from the mentioned stack (that might be suitable)
- Any ideas for features are welcomed.
- The usage of multiple BE stacks.
I intend to use a programming language which I'll use as AWS runtime and write a script that will comb through tons of files in a directory and its subdirectories and search for simple text regular expressions and process and write the matches in a file as output. I have heard that Perl is good for regex based search but I also want the performance to be good as it will have to go through tons of files for IO. In this post: https://filia-aleks.medium.com/aws-lambda-battle-2021-performance-comparison-for-all-languages-c1b441005fd1, I see that Rust works well as AWS Lambda runtime with very good performance. Which one should I choose as my AWS lambda runtime for this problem? Golang is also an option as it is fast as per the above link.
I used to work in a Perl shop and must admit that the language is very simple for tasks like these, but as you mentioned it's not fast at execution time. I'm now a Go programmer professionally but I taught myself the language while in college purely out of interest and eventually found my way to the job, not the other way around. I've recently been learning a little rust because of how much that language comes up in conversations around Go. I find the concept of the borrow checker nice but I have to admit I feel lost like I am in most flavors of new fancy framework js. That's not to say Rust is really anything like js, but the learning appears the same to me as someone who's convinced they could learn just about any programming language if it was necessary (over time I've seen procedural, OOP, declarative and functional stuff but never programming logic outside of the prolog code I wrote in school).
Go isn't made for your specific task at hand but it's a very easy language to pick up and it has good directory traversal standard library code and good regex (even though with time perl's has been optimized to be faster and I think it's written in C++) but more than anything Go is "cloud native" programming in that an awful lot of new microservice tech stacks are centered around it, docker and kubernetes are written in it, and there's a thriving community whose focus is generally web-first and performance-oriented. This means for your use case there might already be a large cohort of gophers that have asked the stackoverflow questions for you
I personally would push you towards the NYT Profiler for Perl before I would towards Rest, but that's because I know you wouldn't waste any time being able to get to the task at hand and then make it go faster, and I expect all but a few rustaceans would be able to do so with the same speed.
Whatever you pick I wish you the very best of luck!
I will use Elixir for personal projects. It's productive, reliable, secure, simple, etc. But when performance is critical, I need job opportunities, when I work with mutability, which do I pick? I need advice on which "bureaucratic, mainstream" programming language to pick when wanting performance and jobs. Elixir is often "slow", and it hasn't boomed yet the way Golang and Rust have, so which?
Well for those performant tasks maybe you can use Rust nifs for elixir. Elixir enables to write fault-tolerant, scalable code for concurrent systems, and as such, it is perfect for messaging systems and web applications that might need to handle a lot of users efficiently. But if you need speed you can plug in Rust or write a microservice using Goland/Rust.
Hello Folks, my first time here, and for requesting advice. I am trying to create some automation from my cloud stack on AWS to something more cloud native. I have containerised the services, however, I am stuck at DB, my Data warehouse, and messaging. Would love some recommendations on how can I automate this for some future work too.
I recommend cloud-init for base setup of machines and configuring them.. Its simple (YAML file) and is industry standard. Even works on bare metal as well as cloud.
Hi, I am working as a web developer (PHP, Laravel, AngularJS, and MySQL) with more than 8 years of experience and looking for a tech stack that pays better. I have a little bit of knowledge of Core Java. For better opportunities, Should I learn Java, Spring Boot or Python. Or should I learn Drupal, WordPress or Magento? Any guidance would be really appreciated! Thanks.
Hard to answer it depend on market. Python + Flask + Jinja2 is better that SpringBoot. Java can be paid better now but I think that future is Python. I code very good in PHP, Java, Python - prefer Python for less code and more effects. PHP is little ugly and limited to web.
What do you think about Node JS with React? I feel like this stack is fairly paid more than PHP.
I am also a Laravel developer, in process of transitioning towards Node js.
If you wanna personally connect with me, hit me up at @izshreyansh on twitter.
Actually, I'll add, C++ and C# as well.
Well, I'm into Computer Science since 1996, so I understand a bit of everything plus a lot of different OSs, I study 10 hours per day every day. However back in the 90s we didn't have books or universities about programming, all were passed through if you knew somebody in that profession. Which I did and in that time, he showed me .NET and MySQL, and that offered a lot of jobs also Java. Today you have a lot of options but I'm already discarding new languages as I believe they will jot succeed.
My always dream was to create game, and software. I don't understand all programming concepts and I'm studying all languages at the same time, so I'm heavy loaded. But that keeps me more aware.
I made a choice: use Python for everything but if you want performance, apps, security, compatibility, Multiplatform. What should I choose? The real question here is: which language should I go 100% and that language will teach me all I need about programming BUT without getting lost in that language forever (I discard any Assembly possibility) and one that has full documentation, support and libraries.
In my experience: I found a lot of info for python and java. But hardly I have ever found anything for C lang, C++ and, what about C# (it's only for Windows, is it easy, I saw a lot of documentation). Thanks!!
Python can be linked with C++ both language are similar in many places (using same libraries or concepts to build libraries) - except memory and static types. C++ is more assembler and have different syntax (need 3x-4x coding more).
If you do engineering it is perfect stack - Java is to slow in coding (4x more code) and little faster than Python - whatever it is hard to mix Java/C++ what is easy Python/C++.
In the most program you do not need super performance but if you need C++ is the best and have rich Object Language much richer than Java and more poor than Python. Python is true object language - everything is object.
Whatever sometimes more important is framework than language for specific use.
I would go with Python, it is fast to code, readable and very powerful without giving you too much to think about (e.g. memory management). If you're looking for speed, Cython is a fairly good way to get there, since Python is a C-based language it can be compiled to C using Cython and will get you a very significant boost in speed! You can also make use of C libraries if you prefer. The only downside to Cython over Python is that it is compiled and not interpreted, which can make debugging a pain (but you might find yourself doing most of the debugging in Python before switching to Cython). C languages are a bit of a pain to read up on (API, libraries etc.), but Stack Overflow has you covered in most cases!
All programming languages are cross platform except Java, but even that's not that bad. Performance: C(++), Go, Rust, Java, Ada, OCaml, Haskell, C# Apps: JS, TS, ReScript, Go, C(++), Java, Haskell, C#, Dart Security: Java, Go, Rust, COBOL, C(++), C# Compatibility: Java(due to it's VM), C(++), Go, C# Libraries: Java, Go, C(++), C# Documentation: Java, C(++) (since they are mature) What do you mean without getting lost in the language? I'd not advocate for C(or C++), considering it's hard to understand the memory, and it's for those into programming theory. You are looking for all you need. Go for Java, it has a library for everything, it has a reasonable learning curve, and pretty much you are going to encounter it everywhere- it's like a programming black hole you can't escape.
I'm working in a company as a software engineer, Mainly we are focusing on PHP as the product is being developed in PHP (native) also there are a few products in Node.js, I tried to introduce Laravel but there is no luck to work on it. Now I have started learning Go language, should I focus more on Go or continue only with PHP and NodeJS. BTW I know PHP and NodeJS very well.
Be flexible, be agile in your personal and professional life. Don't be afraid to learn new things and step outside of your confort zone BUT with reason. Reason can be a career path or just money. Does Go belongs to your career path? Does Go belongs to your company's toolset? Do yo seek for new job oportunities? Some people follow a complete career path by using a single language i.e, PHP or java, but if you want to standout in the crowd this is not enough. You already know PHP. This is an oportunity to learn something new. In general, I would advise you to learn at least one language & library/framework per stack . This will help you to lead a team someday.
Generally speaking, what are the most important things you expect a junior developer to know and be able to do from day 1 in your respective tech stack? Firm grasp of OOP? SQL? MVC? ORM? Algorithms and Datastructures? Understanding CRUD & the request response cycle? Database design? framework familiarity? Postman? Deployment? TDD? Git? Language-specific knowledge? Other things?
Start with building a solid understanding of computer science fundamentals. Understand the basics of building blocks - memory, processing, storage, networking. Understand what CPU bound, memory bound, I/O bound, network bound processes are. Understand the cost of accessing data from Memory vs. Disk vs Network. Understand how multiple CPU threads help in optimizing the performance of a single machine.
Build expertise on a programming language. You may pick any language of your choice. I would recommend starting with Java / Python. Make sure you know one language really well. Build a strong understanding of Data Structures and Algorithms. You should be able to develop an intuition on when to use what. You may practice DS and Algorithm problems, using the language of your choice, on a competitive coding platform (e.g. Leetcode) or by building your own App!
Next, get familiar with basic cloud computing and distributed system concepts. Here is a good resource for that - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7NkTUyEE1o&ab_channel=JeffreyRichter If you understand the computer science fundamentals well, you will be able to apply those concepts here as well.
Hope it helps!
Ability to read code and willingness to try to reason flow of operations and information. Tools and technologies change, one doesn't need to have them in toolbelt from day one. All things you name are relevant in some contexts, so it's not bad to understand them.
For me, it is less of a specific technology you know (although I would prefer you have some knowledge of some of my team stack). It is more the way you get into a problem, the eagerness to learn more, the true sincerity to say "I don't know", the open mind to find solutions in different ways and the "Yes we can" mentality no matter how hard it is.
Just learn to learn. Learn to search and develop your logical thinking, that's all you need. No books, no deep study of how computers work, just logic and willingness to learn
Most employers don't expect from you to know how to implement CI/CD or any other funcy stuff. As junior developer you should focus on building a good toolset of good software practices & principles. Your soft skills are important as well. Learn about soft skills. Be eager to learn, be humble and show you talent and your creativity through your work. If you want to become a good developer ( at first) and a star engineer (at a later stage) then computer programming (coding) is your number one priority . Coding is like painting. Putting aside your talent, you have to practice a lot and improve your outcome each time. As junior developer you can learn how to write good code by studying existing code found in public git repositories (i e , github). As junior developer you should study some good software principles (i.e., DRY, KISS, YAGNI) and always recall them each time you write software code. As junior developer you should learn about coding standards and conventions. You will have to follow to your company's coding conventions (soon or later) as well as you will realize that you have to write code cosistent to the existing code base. At the end of the day, code consistency matters a lot. You have to improve your code day by day. If you manage to follow some good software practices you will find out that you will need an ORM to work with your database. Then you will realize that you need the X web framework to build your REST API etc. To sum up, you will start building a toolset with a single programming language and some good software practices & principles and then you will put new tools in it day-by-day.
Hi! I'm currently studying Flutter for mobile apps, but I also have a demand to automate some tasks on the web and create backends' for my apps, so thinking about which one of those could be better? Considering the performance and how easy it's to learn and create stuff? (I'm already familiar with .NET stack but want something more "simple" to write)
Definitely Python. Lots of libraries, dead simple syntax. Lots of code examples and reference projects. Elixir is pure functional and takes time to grasp the concepts. Go is great, with simple syntax and performant runtime, but more strict as it is statically typed. For quick coding, nothing beats Python. As you come from .net I’d consider similar approach and be considering Java with SpringBoot as it makes Java faster and much more fun to code web servers
Elixir really has a good performance for the web (and in general). Its framework Phoenix for the web is a great tool, easy to install and to use, with features for websockets (and Pub/Sub) or LiveView to write reactive and real time app with only HTML (and Elixir) so basically everything is in one place
It can take some time to learn a few things in Elixir but I really think it's worth it, and it's very easy to go distributed and concurrent with Elixir. Also it's easier to code quickly with some features like the pattern matching or some operators like the pipe or the capture one
And in the case you need it you can still connect and interface Python and Elixir pretty quickly, and now Elixir has a lot of different frameworks : web, embedded or even neural networks now
Never went far with Go but I have some trouble with its syntax, I find it a bit messy
I don't have a lot of experience with the web with Python but I don't have a good experience with the little I did
Judging your previous experience we will benefit from Golang in terms of portability and speed. If you want to go simplier use Python. If it's only scripts use Python.
Hey Vitor, You can use Node and Express JS to create a backend for your app. You can create REST APIS to connect your front end with the backend. It is a very simple and scalable solution for building backend web apps.
We're moving from Java to Kotlin with our Microservice Stack (Spring Boot) because it is excellently supported by framework and tools and the learning curve is not very steep Kotlin is way more straightforward and convenient to use while providing less boilerplate and more strictness, which finally leads to better code, which is more readable, maintainable and less error-prone. We especially like Kotlin's (functional) data structures, which are, e.g. compared to Scala, easier to understand and don't require deep knowledge in functional programming.
We have chosen a mix of Java and Python for building an open source data observability tool. The application can work as a standalone command line tool with a rich shell interface (using even command completion). The Java ecosystem is more mature when it comes to connectivity to various databases using JDBC. Also picocli with jline3 let us make a very dynamic shell interface with command completion. The definitions of data quality checks that should be executed are defined in YAML files, backed by a YAML (in fact JSON) schema files. Our YAML files can be edited in Visual Studio Code (and other code editors) with support of the code completion. It is possible because all the data model is defined as pure Java classes for which we are generating a YAML/JSON schema. There is still place for Python because it is very popular in the database space. We are simply starting a Python interpreter in the background (from a Java code). Python is used to evaluate validation rules (defined as Python functions) and render SQL queries from Jinja2 templates.
As we're developing a critical piece of software, type safety is very important to minimize the errors we have. While Python supports type hints nowadays, Go makes it much more easy to work with and allows us to be confident in the software we ship.
Take look at our code in our github
Ever since the introduction of the PWA, I felt forced to learn JS, React, and Angular. I encountered WASM, which compiles Go/Rust to JS. I decided to give go a shot and made a simple weather PWA that tells the weather of various Japanese cities. It was 40x faster than Transcrypt and 0.9x faster than regular JS. Go is even simpler than Python when coming to tools like list comprehension and Pandas.
I wanted to develop a student app that possibly could be used by many teams (students from other schools)
I chose Ionic, because:
single codebase: previously, we used React Native for Android and Angular for web/PWA, which was troublesome
portability: runs on PWA (which is important, because iOS license is too expensive for school app), web, Android iOS (+ others, if needed)
full use of web technologies: Next.js, Tailwind, React in this example (in oppose to Flutter/Java/Kotlin)
stability and maintainability: low-entry level due to basic web technologies without new syntax (in oppose to React Native and Flutter), web is really stable and won't lose support (which doesn't have to be true with Flutter/Dart)
We chose Rust for our web API because the Warp crate makes it easy to compose high-performance and asynchronous APIs. Rust allows us to achieve high development velocity because it provides zero-cost abstractions and enforces strict type and memory-safety checks with high quality and actionable error messages.
Expo was a tool Macombey really wanted to utilize from the beginning. I have been working with React Native since 2016 and originally I had to use simulators in Xcode, install pods on top of node packages, configure certificates, and more abundant objectives that take time away from actual development. As a development studio, we have to move quick and get projects to our clients and partners in a matter of months.
Expo made this easy for us. We now have a mobile app for clients to download and test their project on, there is no need to install pods or configure Xcode, and development is super fast and reliable now.
I had a goal to create the simplest accounting software for Mac and Windows to help small businesses in Canada.
This led me to a long 2 years of exploration of the best language that could provide these features:
- Great overall productivity
- International wide-spread usage for long-term sustainability and easy to find documentation
- Versatility for creating websites and desktop softwares
- Enjoyable developper experience
- Ability to create good looking modern UIs
- Job openings with this language
I tried Python, Java, C# and C++ without finding what I was looking for.
Python has become the most popular language for machine learning right now since almost all machine learning tools provide service for this language, and it is really to use since it has many build-in objects like Hashtable. In C, you need to implement everything by yourself.
C++ is one of the most popular programming languages in graphics. It has many fancy libraries like eigen to help us process matrix. I have many previous projects about graphics based on C++ and this time, we also need to deal with graphics since we need to analyze movements of the human body. C++ has much more advantages than Java. C++ uses only compiler, whereas Java uses compiler and interpreter in both. C++ supports both operator overloading and method overloading whereas Java only supports method overloading. C++ supports manual object management with the help of new and delete keywords whereas Java has built-in automatic garbage collection.
Go is a way faster than both Python and PHP, which is pretty understandable, but we were amazed at how good we adapted to use it. Go was a blessing for a team , since strict typing is making it very easy to develop and control everything inside team, so the quality was really good. We made huge leap forward in dev speed because of it.
Pros of Golang
- Simple, minimal syntax391
- Fun to write358
- Easy concurrency support via goroutines299
- Fast compilation times271
- Statically linked binaries that are simple to deploy179
- Simple compile build/run procedures150
- Backed by google136
- Great community134
- Garbage collection built-in52
- Built-in Testing45
- Excellent tools - gofmt, godoc etc43
- Elegant and concise like Python, fast like C39
- Awesome to Develop37
- Used for Docker26
- Flexible interface system25
- Deploy as executable24
- Great concurrency pattern24
- Open-source Integration20
- Fun to write and so many feature out of the box17
- Easy to read17
- Go is God16
- Its Simple and Heavy duty14
- Powerful and simple14
- Easy to deploy14
- Best language for concurrency13
- Rich standard library11
- Safe GOTOs11
- Clean code, high performance10
- Easy setup10
- Simplicity, Concurrency, Performance9
- High performance9
- Hassle free deployment8
- Single binary avoids library dependency issues8
- Simple, powerful, and great performance7
- Cross compiling7
- Used by Giants of the industry7
- Garbage Collection6
- Very sophisticated syntax5
- Excellent tooling5
- Keep it simple and stupid4
- Widely used4
- Kubernetes written on Go4
- No generics2
- Operator goto1
Pros of Java
- Great libraries594
- Widely used444
- Excellent tooling400
- Huge amount of documentation available390
- Large pool of developers available333
- Open source205
- Excellent performance201
- Great development155
- Vast array of 3rd party libraries149
- Used for android148
- Compiled Language60
- Used for Web51
- Managed memory46
- High Performance45
- Native threads44
- Statically typed43
- Easy to read35
- Great Community33
- Reliable platform29
- Sturdy garbage collection24
- JVM compatibility24
- Cross Platform Enterprise Integration22
- Universal platform20
- Good amount of APIs20
- Great Support18
- Great ecosystem14
- Backward compatible11
- Lots of boilerplate11
- Excellent SDK - JDK9
- It's Java7
- Static typing7
- Long term language6
- Better than Ruby6
- Mature language thus stable systems6
- Vast Collections Library5
- Used for Android development5
- Most developers favorite4
- Old tech4
- Stable platform, which many new languages depend on3
- Great Structure3
- Best martial for design3
- Type Safe2
- Faster than python2
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Cons of Golang
- You waste time in plumbing code catching errors41
- Packages and their path dependencies are braindead23
- Dependency management when working on multiple projects15
- Google's documentations aren't beginer friendly15
- Automatic garbage collection overheads10
- Uncommon syntax8
- Type system is lacking (no generics, etc)6
- Collection framework is lacking (list, set, map)3
- Best programming language2
Cons of Java
- Nightmare to Write16
- Overcomplexity is praised in community culture16
- Boiler plate code12
- Classpath hell prior to Java 98
- No REPL6
- No property4
- Code are too long3
- Non-intuitive generic implementation2
- There is not optional parameter2
- Floating-point errors2
- Java's too statically, stronglly, and strictly typed1
- Returning Wildcard Types1
- Terrbible compared to Python/Batch Perormence1
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