Alternatives to TestFlight logo

Alternatives to TestFlight

HockeyApp, TestFairy, Crashlytics, Fabric, and Buddybuild are the most popular alternatives and competitors to TestFlight.
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What is TestFlight and what are its top alternatives?

TestFlight is a beta testing platform owned by Apple that allows developers to distribute and test their iOS apps before release. Key features include easy app distribution, in-app feedback, crash reporting, and integration with Xcode. However, TestFlight is limited to iOS apps only and requires an Apple Developer account for full functionality.

  1. Firebase App Distribution: Firebase App Distribution is a mobile app distribution platform by Google that offers seamless distribution of iOS and Android apps. Key features include easy distribution to testers, crash reporting, and integration with Firebase services. Pros include support for both iOS and Android apps, while a con is limited support for in-app feedback compared to TestFlight.

  2. HockeyApp: HockeyApp, now integrated into Azure DevOps, is a distribution platform for iOS, Android, and Windows apps. Key features include app distribution, crash reporting, and user metrics. Pros include cross-platform support, but a con is that it is now part of Azure DevOps, so may have different pricing and integration.

  3. Installr: Installr is a platform for distributing ad-hoc builds of iOS apps for testing. Key features include easy distribution to testers, in-app analytics, and integration with popular development tools. Pros include simplicity and ease of use, but a con is limited support for Android apps.

  4. Visual Studio App Center: Visual Studio App Center by Microsoft is a platform for building, testing, and deploying iOS, Android, and Windows apps. Key features include app distribution, crash reporting, and continuous integration. Pros include multi-platform support, but a con is that it may be more complex compared to TestFlight for simple beta testing.

  5. Bitrise: Bitrise is a continuous integration and delivery platform for mobile apps, including support for iOS and Android. Key features include automated build processes, app distribution, and integrations with popular tools. Pros include robust CI/CD capabilities, while a con is that it may be more geared towards development teams rather than beta testers.

  6. Play Console: Play Console by Google is a platform for distributing Android apps to testers and production. Key features include app distribution, user feedback, and performance insights. Pros include seamless integration with Google services, but a con is that it is limited to Android apps.

  7. TestFairy: TestFairy is a platform for app distribution, monitoring, and user feedback for iOS and Android apps. Key features include video recordings of user sessions, crash reporting, and in-app feedback. Pros include comprehensive user feedback tools, while a con is that it may have a steeper learning curve compared to TestFlight.

  8. AWS Device Farm: AWS Device Farm is a mobile app testing service that allows for testing on real devices in the AWS cloud. Key features include automated testing, compatibility testing, and device logs. Pros include integration with other AWS services, but a con is that it may be more focused on testing rather than beta distribution.

  9. Ghost Inspector: Ghost Inspector is a platform for automated browser testing that can also be used for mobile app testing. Key features include test automation, visual regression testing, and test scheduling. Pros include cross-platform support, but a con is that it may not be as specialized for mobile app testing as other platforms.

  10. AWS Amplify: AWS Amplify is a development platform for building mobile and web apps with a focus on full-stack serverless development. Key features include app hosting, CI/CD, and analytics. Pros include robust development tools, but a con is that it may require more setup compared to TestFlight for beta testing.

Top Alternatives to TestFlight

  • HockeyApp
    HockeyApp

    HockeyApp is the best way to collect live crash reports, get feedback from your users, distribute your betas, and analyze your test coverage. ...

  • TestFairy
    TestFairy

    When testing apps in the crowd, you never know what exactly was done, and what went wrong on the client side. TestFairy shows you a video of the exact test that was done, including CPU, memory, GPS, network and a lot more. ...

  • Crashlytics
    Crashlytics

    Instead of just showing you the stack trace, Crashlytics performs deep analysis of each and every thread. We de-prioritize lines that don't matter while highlighting the interesting ones. This makes reading stack traces easier, faster, and far more useful! Crashlytics' intelligent grouping can take 50,000 crashes, distill them down to 20 unique issues, and then tell you which 3 are the most important to fix. ...

  • Fabric
    Fabric

    Fabric is a Python (2.5-2.7) library and command-line tool for streamlining the use of SSH for application deployment or systems administration tasks. It provides a basic suite of operations for executing local or remote shell commands (normally or via sudo) and uploading/downloading files, as well as auxiliary functionality such as prompting the running user for input, or aborting execution. ...

  • Buddybuild
    Buddybuild

    Buddybuild ties together continuous integration, continuous delivery and an iterative feedback solution into a single, seamless platform. ...

  • Firebase
    Firebase

    Firebase is a cloud service designed to power real-time, collaborative applications. Simply add the Firebase library to your application to gain access to a shared data structure; any changes you make to that data are automatically synchronized with the Firebase cloud and with other clients within milliseconds. ...

  • JavaScript
    JavaScript

    JavaScript is most known as the scripting language for Web pages, but used in many non-browser environments as well such as node.js or Apache CouchDB. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic,and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. ...

  • Git
    Git

    Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. ...

TestFlight alternatives & related posts

HockeyApp logo

HockeyApp

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Manage your betas and collect live crash reports for iOS, Android, Windows Phone, and OS X apps.
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PROS OF HOCKEYAPP
  • 17
    Crash analytics
  • 11
    Cross-platform
  • 5
    Mobile application distribution
  • 2
    JIRA Integration
  • 2
    Open source
  • 1
    GitHub Integration
CONS OF HOCKEYAPP
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    related HockeyApp posts

    TestFairy logo

    TestFairy

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    76
    29
    Painless Beta Testing
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    + 1
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    PROS OF TESTFAIRY
    • 8
      Get video rec of the user on your app
    • 4
      Landing Page
    • 4
      Better design
    • 3
      JIRA Integration
    • 2
      Cross-platform
    • 2
      Supports Enterprise IPA's (TestFlight doesn't/didn't)
    • 2
      GitHub Integration
    • 1
      Application full Log information
    • 1
      In-App Feedback
    • 1
      Single Sign-On
    • 1
      App Distribution
    CONS OF TESTFAIRY
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      related TestFairy posts

      Crashlytics logo

      Crashlytics

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      The world's most powerful, yet lightest weight crash reporting solution. Free for everybody.
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      PROS OF CRASHLYTICS
      • 78
        Crash tracking
      • 56
        Mobile exception tracking
      • 53
        Free
      • 37
        Easy deployment
      • 25
        Ios
      • 15
        Great ui
      • 11
        Great reports
      • 10
        Android
      • 8
        Advanced Logging
      • 7
        Monitor Tester Lifecycle
      • 3
        Mac APP and IDE Plugins
      • 3
        Great User Experience
      • 3
        In Real-Time
      • 3
        iOS SDK
      • 3
        Security
      • 3
        Android SDK
      • 2
        The UI is simple and it just works
      • 2
        Best UI
      • 2
        Light
      • 2
        Real-time
      • 2
        Seamless
      • 2
        Painless App Distribution
      • 2
        Crash Reporting
      • 2
        Beta distribution
      • 2
        Mobile Analytics
      • 2
        Deep Workflow Integration
      • 1
        IOS QA Deploy and tracking
      • 1
        Easy iOS Integration
      CONS OF CRASHLYTICS
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        related Crashlytics posts

        Алексей Нестерчук
        Shared insights
        on
        AWS ConfigAWS ConfigCrashlyticsCrashlytics

        From firebase Crashlytics, everything is simple, we install SDK and configs, and then we can see all the crashes. With AWS, it is not clear to me which service to use for the same purpose as configuring it. Correctly I understand that for automatic sending of all crashes, you need to use AWS Config?

        See more

        When we first built the ArifZefen app our focus was around validating our business assumptions and finding a good product fit. Once we got to a few thousand users, it became clear that we needed to make quality a priority and that meant we needed a reliable tool that will allow us to monitor the health of our app. Crashlytics (now Fabric by Twitter ) was on a short list of solutions we closely explored and we were very happy with its ease of integration and the consistency it brought to our Cocoa Touch (iOS) and Android SDK crash monitoring.

        Its daily pulse emails were also super informative in giving us a good sense of how each platform was doing in terms of crash-free and new users, daily actives and other relevant session data. These emails also surfaced any anomalies in daily trends, alerting us of any reason for concern. Overall, Crashlytics was instrumental in allowing us to quickly discover and diagnose crashes and it is one of the main reasons we were able to keep our app store ratings reasonable high. But perhaps even more importantly, we were able to set a high quality bar for our users that absent Crashlytics would have been difficult to maintain.

        See more
        Fabric logo

        Fabric

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        Simple, Pythonic remote execution and deployment
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        PROS OF FABRIC
        • 23
          Python
        • 21
          Simple
        • 5
          Low learning curve, from bash script to Python power
        • 5
          Installation feedback for Twitter App Cards
        • 3
          Easy on maintainance
        • 3
          Single config file
        • 3
          Installation? pip install fabric... Boom
        • 3
          Easy to add any type of job
        • 3
          Agentless
        • 2
          Easily automate any set system automation
        • 1
          Flexible
        • 1
          Crash Analytics
        • 1
          Backward compatibility
        • 1
          Remote sudo execution
        CONS OF FABRIC
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          related Fabric posts

          Buddybuild logo

          Buddybuild

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          A continuous integration, continuous deployment and user feedback platform for iOS and Android development teams
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          PROS OF BUDDYBUILD
          • 12
            Easy setup
          • 8
            Beta testing
          • 8
            Crazy easy
          • 7
            GitHub Integration
          • 3
            Crash reporting
          • 2
            Cause it's just great
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            Good support team
          CONS OF BUDDYBUILD
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            Firebase logo

            Firebase

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            PROS OF FIREBASE
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              Realtime backend made easy
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              Fast and responsive
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              Easy setup
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              Real-time
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              JSON
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              Free
            • 128
              Backed by google
            • 83
              Angular adaptor
            • 68
              Reliable
            • 36
              Great customer support
            • 32
              Great documentation
            • 25
              Real-time synchronization
            • 21
              Mobile friendly
            • 19
              Rapid prototyping
            • 14
              Great security
            • 12
              Automatic scaling
            • 11
              Freakingly awesome
            • 8
              Super fast development
            • 8
              Angularfire is an amazing addition!
            • 8
              Chat
            • 6
              Firebase hosting
            • 6
              Built in user auth/oauth
            • 6
              Awesome next-gen backend
            • 6
              Ios adaptor
            • 4
              Speed of light
            • 4
              Very easy to use
            • 3
              Great
            • 3
              It's made development super fast
            • 3
              Brilliant for startups
            • 2
              Free hosting
            • 2
              Cloud functions
            • 2
              JS Offline and Sync suport
            • 2
              Low battery consumption
            • 2
              .net
            • 2
              The concurrent updates create a great experience
            • 2
              Push notification
            • 2
              I can quickly create static web apps with no backend
            • 2
              Great all-round functionality
            • 2
              Free authentication solution
            • 1
              Easy Reactjs integration
            • 1
              Google's support
            • 1
              Free SSL
            • 1
              CDN & cache out of the box
            • 1
              Easy to use
            • 1
              Large
            • 1
              Faster workflow
            • 1
              Serverless
            • 1
              Good Free Limits
            • 1
              Simple and easy
            CONS OF FIREBASE
            • 31
              Can become expensive
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              No open source, you depend on external company
            • 15
              Scalability is not infinite
            • 9
              Not Flexible Enough
            • 7
              Cant filter queries
            • 3
              Very unstable server
            • 3
              No Relational Data
            • 2
              Too many errors
            • 2
              No offline sync

            related Firebase posts

            Johnny Bell

            I was building a personal project that I needed to store items in a real time database. I am more comfortable with my Frontend skills than my backend so I didn't want to spend time building out anything in Ruby or Go.

            I stumbled on Firebase by #Google, and it was really all I needed. It had realtime data, an area for storing file uploads and best of all for the amount of data I needed it was free!

            I built out my application using tools I was familiar with, React for the framework, Redux.js to manage my state across components, and styled-components for the styling.

            Now as this was a project I was just working on in my free time for fun I didn't really want to pay for hosting. I did some research and I found Netlify. I had actually seen them at #ReactRally the year before and deployed a Gatsby site to Netlify already.

            Netlify was very easy to setup and link to my GitHub account you select a repo and pretty much with very little configuration you have a live site that will deploy every time you push to master.

            With the selection of these tools I was able to build out my application, connect it to a realtime database, and deploy to a live environment all with $0 spent.

            If you're looking to build out a small app I suggest giving these tools a go as you can get your idea out into the real world for absolutely no cost.

            See more
            Collins Ogbuzuru
            Front-end dev at Evolve credit · | 20 upvotes · 26.6K views

            Your tech stack is solid for building a real-time messaging project.

            React and React Native are excellent choices for the frontend, especially if you want to have both web and mobile versions of your application share code.

            ExpressJS is an unopinionated framework that affords you the flexibility to use it's features at your term, which is a good start. However, I would recommend you explore Sails.js as well. Sails.js is built on top of Express.js and it provides additional features out of the box, especially the Websocket integration that your project requires.

            Don't forget to set up Graphql codegen, this would improve your dev experience (Add Typescript, if you can too).

            I don't know much about databases but you might want to consider using NO-SQL. I used Firebase real-time db and aws dynamo db on a few of my personal projects and I love they're easy to work with and offer more flexibility for a chat application.

            See more
            JavaScript logo

            JavaScript

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            Lightweight, interpreted, object-oriented language with first-class functions
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            PROS OF JAVASCRIPT
            • 1.7K
              Can be used on frontend/backend
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              It's everywhere
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              Lots of great frameworks
            • 897
              Fast
            • 745
              Light weight
            • 425
              Flexible
            • 392
              You can't get a device today that doesn't run js
            • 286
              Non-blocking i/o
            • 237
              Ubiquitousness
            • 191
              Expressive
            • 55
              Extended functionality to web pages
            • 49
              Relatively easy language
            • 46
              Executed on the client side
            • 30
              Relatively fast to the end user
            • 25
              Pure Javascript
            • 21
              Functional programming
            • 15
              Async
            • 13
              Full-stack
            • 12
              Setup is easy
            • 12
              Future Language of The Web
            • 12
              Its everywhere
            • 11
              Because I love functions
            • 11
              JavaScript is the New PHP
            • 10
              Like it or not, JS is part of the web standard
            • 9
              Expansive community
            • 9
              Everyone use it
            • 9
              Can be used in backend, frontend and DB
            • 9
              Easy
            • 8
              Most Popular Language in the World
            • 8
              Powerful
            • 8
              Can be used both as frontend and backend as well
            • 8
              For the good parts
            • 8
              No need to use PHP
            • 8
              Easy to hire developers
            • 7
              Agile, packages simple to use
            • 7
              Love-hate relationship
            • 7
              Photoshop has 3 JS runtimes built in
            • 7
              Evolution of C
            • 7
              It's fun
            • 7
              Hard not to use
            • 7
              Versitile
            • 7
              Its fun and fast
            • 7
              Nice
            • 7
              Popularized Class-Less Architecture & Lambdas
            • 7
              Supports lambdas and closures
            • 6
              It let's me use Babel & Typescript
            • 6
              Can be used on frontend/backend/Mobile/create PRO Ui
            • 6
              1.6K Can be used on frontend/backend
            • 6
              Client side JS uses the visitors CPU to save Server Res
            • 6
              Easy to make something
            • 5
              Clojurescript
            • 5
              Promise relationship
            • 5
              Stockholm Syndrome
            • 5
              Function expressions are useful for callbacks
            • 5
              Scope manipulation
            • 5
              Everywhere
            • 5
              Client processing
            • 5
              What to add
            • 4
              Because it is so simple and lightweight
            • 4
              Only Programming language on browser
            • 1
              Test
            • 1
              Hard to learn
            • 1
              Test2
            • 1
              Not the best
            • 1
              Easy to understand
            • 1
              Subskill #4
            • 1
              Easy to learn
            • 0
              Hard 彤
            CONS OF JAVASCRIPT
            • 22
              A constant moving target, too much churn
            • 20
              Horribly inconsistent
            • 15
              Javascript is the New PHP
            • 9
              No ability to monitor memory utilitization
            • 8
              Shows Zero output in case of ANY error
            • 7
              Thinks strange results are better than errors
            • 6
              Can be ugly
            • 3
              No GitHub
            • 2
              Slow
            • 0
              HORRIBLE DOCUMENTS, faulty code, repo has bugs

            related JavaScript posts

            Zach Holman

            Oof. I have truly hated JavaScript for a long time. Like, for over twenty years now. Like, since the Clinton administration. It's always been a nightmare to deal with all of the aspects of that silly language.

            But wowza, things have changed. Tooling is just way, way better. I'm primarily web-oriented, and using React and Apollo together the past few years really opened my eyes to building rich apps. And I deeply apologize for using the phrase rich apps; I don't think I've ever said such Enterprisey words before.

            But yeah, things are different now. I still love Rails, and still use it for a lot of apps I build. But it's that silly rich apps phrase that's the problem. Users have way more comprehensive expectations than they did even five years ago, and the JS community does a good job at building tools and tech that tackle the problems of making heavy, complicated UI and frontend work.

            Obviously there's a lot of things happening here, so just saying "JavaScript isn't terrible" might encompass a huge amount of libraries and frameworks. But if you're like me, yeah, give things another shot- I'm somehow not hating on JavaScript anymore and... gulp... I kinda love it.

            See more
            Conor Myhrvold
            Tech Brand Mgr, Office of CTO at Uber · | 44 upvotes · 11.2M views

            How Uber developed the open source, end-to-end distributed tracing Jaeger , now a CNCF project:

            Distributed tracing is quickly becoming a must-have component in the tools that organizations use to monitor their complex, microservice-based architectures. At Uber, our open source distributed tracing system Jaeger saw large-scale internal adoption throughout 2016, integrated into hundreds of microservices and now recording thousands of traces every second.

            Here is the story of how we got here, from investigating off-the-shelf solutions like Zipkin, to why we switched from pull to push architecture, and how distributed tracing will continue to evolve:

            https://eng.uber.com/distributed-tracing/

            (GitHub Pages : https://www.jaegertracing.io/, GitHub: https://github.com/jaegertracing/jaeger)

            Bindings/Operator: Python Java Node.js Go C++ Kubernetes JavaScript OpenShift C# Apache Spark

            See more
            Git logo

            Git

            293.6K
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            Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
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            PROS OF GIT
            • 1.4K
              Distributed version control system
            • 1.1K
              Efficient branching and merging
            • 959
              Fast
            • 845
              Open source
            • 726
              Better than svn
            • 368
              Great command-line application
            • 306
              Simple
            • 291
              Free
            • 232
              Easy to use
            • 222
              Does not require server
            • 27
              Distributed
            • 22
              Small & Fast
            • 18
              Feature based workflow
            • 15
              Staging Area
            • 13
              Most wide-spread VSC
            • 11
              Role-based codelines
            • 11
              Disposable Experimentation
            • 7
              Frictionless Context Switching
            • 6
              Data Assurance
            • 5
              Efficient
            • 4
              Just awesome
            • 3
              Github integration
            • 3
              Easy branching and merging
            • 2
              Compatible
            • 2
              Flexible
            • 2
              Possible to lose history and commits
            • 1
              Rebase supported natively; reflog; access to plumbing
            • 1
              Light
            • 1
              Team Integration
            • 1
              Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
            • 1
              Easy
            • 1
              Flexible, easy, Safe, and fast
            • 1
              CLI is great, but the GUI tools are awesome
            • 1
              It's what you do
            • 0
              Phinx
            CONS OF GIT
            • 16
              Hard to learn
            • 11
              Inconsistent command line interface
            • 9
              Easy to lose uncommitted work
            • 7
              Worst documentation ever possibly made
            • 5
              Awful merge handling
            • 3
              Unexistent preventive security flows
            • 3
              Rebase hell
            • 2
              When --force is disabled, cannot rebase
            • 2
              Ironically even die-hard supporters screw up badly
            • 1
              Doesn't scale for big data

            related Git posts

            Simon Reymann
            Senior Fullstack Developer at QUANTUSflow Software GmbH · | 30 upvotes · 9.9M views

            Our whole DevOps stack consists of the following tools:

            • GitHub (incl. GitHub Pages/Markdown for Documentation, GettingStarted and HowTo's) for collaborative review and code management tool
            • Respectively Git as revision control system
            • SourceTree as Git GUI
            • Visual Studio Code as IDE
            • CircleCI for continuous integration (automatize development process)
            • Prettier / TSLint / ESLint as code linter
            • SonarQube as quality gate
            • Docker as container management (incl. Docker Compose for multi-container application management)
            • VirtualBox for operating system simulation tests
            • Kubernetes as cluster management for docker containers
            • Heroku for deploying in test environments
            • nginx as web server (preferably used as facade server in production environment)
            • SSLMate (using OpenSSL) for certificate management
            • Amazon EC2 (incl. Amazon S3) for deploying in stage (production-like) and production environments
            • PostgreSQL as preferred database system
            • Redis as preferred in-memory database/store (great for caching)

            The main reason we have chosen Kubernetes over Docker Swarm is related to the following artifacts:

            • Key features: Easy and flexible installation, Clear dashboard, Great scaling operations, Monitoring is an integral part, Great load balancing concepts, Monitors the condition and ensures compensation in the event of failure.
            • Applications: An application can be deployed using a combination of pods, deployments, and services (or micro-services).
            • Functionality: Kubernetes as a complex installation and setup process, but it not as limited as Docker Swarm.
            • Monitoring: It supports multiple versions of logging and monitoring when the services are deployed within the cluster (Elasticsearch/Kibana (ELK), Heapster/Grafana, Sysdig cloud integration).
            • Scalability: All-in-one framework for distributed systems.
            • Other Benefits: Kubernetes is backed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), huge community among container orchestration tools, it is an open source and modular tool that works with any OS.
            See more
            Tymoteusz Paul
            Devops guy at X20X Development LTD · | 23 upvotes · 8.9M views

            Often enough I have to explain my way of going about setting up a CI/CD pipeline with multiple deployment platforms. Since I am a bit tired of yapping the same every single time, I've decided to write it up and share with the world this way, and send people to read it instead ;). I will explain it on "live-example" of how the Rome got built, basing that current methodology exists only of readme.md and wishes of good luck (as it usually is ;)).

            It always starts with an app, whatever it may be and reading the readmes available while Vagrant and VirtualBox is installing and updating. Following that is the first hurdle to go over - convert all the instruction/scripts into Ansible playbook(s), and only stopping when doing a clear vagrant up or vagrant reload we will have a fully working environment. As our Vagrant environment is now functional, it's time to break it! This is the moment to look for how things can be done better (too rigid/too lose versioning? Sloppy environment setup?) and replace them with the right way to do stuff, one that won't bite us in the backside. This is the point, and the best opportunity, to upcycle the existing way of doing dev environment to produce a proper, production-grade product.

            I should probably digress here for a moment and explain why. I firmly believe that the way you deploy production is the same way you should deploy develop, shy of few debugging-friendly setting. This way you avoid the discrepancy between how production work vs how development works, which almost always causes major pains in the back of the neck, and with use of proper tools should mean no more work for the developers. That's why we start with Vagrant as developer boxes should be as easy as vagrant up, but the meat of our product lies in Ansible which will do meat of the work and can be applied to almost anything: AWS, bare metal, docker, LXC, in open net, behind vpn - you name it.

            We must also give proper consideration to monitoring and logging hoovering at this point. My generic answer here is to grab Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Logstash. While for different use cases there may be better solutions, this one is well battle-tested, performs reasonably and is very easy to scale both vertically (within some limits) and horizontally. Logstash rules are easy to write and are well supported in maintenance through Ansible, which as I've mentioned earlier, are at the very core of things, and creating triggers/reports and alerts based on Elastic and Kibana is generally a breeze, including some quite complex aggregations.

            If we are happy with the state of the Ansible it's time to move on and put all those roles and playbooks to work. Namely, we need something to manage our CI/CD pipelines. For me, the choice is obvious: TeamCity. It's modern, robust and unlike most of the light-weight alternatives, it's transparent. What I mean by that is that it doesn't tell you how to do things, doesn't limit your ways to deploy, or test, or package for that matter. Instead, it provides a developer-friendly and rich playground for your pipelines. You can do most the same with Jenkins, but it has a quite dated look and feel to it, while also missing some key functionality that must be brought in via plugins (like quality REST API which comes built-in with TeamCity). It also comes with all the common-handy plugins like Slack or Apache Maven integration.

            The exact flow between CI and CD varies too greatly from one application to another to describe, so I will outline a few rules that guide me in it: 1. Make build steps as small as possible. This way when something breaks, we know exactly where, without needing to dig and root around. 2. All security credentials besides development environment must be sources from individual Vault instances. Keys to those containers should exist only on the CI/CD box and accessible by a few people (the less the better). This is pretty self-explanatory, as anything besides dev may contain sensitive data and, at times, be public-facing. Because of that appropriate security must be present. TeamCity shines in this department with excellent secrets-management. 3. Every part of the build chain shall consume and produce artifacts. If it creates nothing, it likely shouldn't be its own build. This way if any issue shows up with any environment or version, all developer has to do it is grab appropriate artifacts to reproduce the issue locally. 4. Deployment builds should be directly tied to specific Git branches/tags. This enables much easier tracking of what caused an issue, including automated identifying and tagging the author (nothing like automated regression testing!).

            Speaking of deployments, I generally try to keep it simple but also with a close eye on the wallet. Because of that, I am more than happy with AWS or another cloud provider, but also constantly peeking at the loads and do we get the value of what we are paying for. Often enough the pattern of use is not constantly erratic, but rather has a firm baseline which could be migrated away from the cloud and into bare metal boxes. That is another part where this approach strongly triumphs over the common Docker and CircleCI setup, where you are very much tied in to use cloud providers and getting out is expensive. Here to embrace bare-metal hosting all you need is a help of some container-based self-hosting software, my personal preference is with Proxmox and LXC. Following that all you must write are ansible scripts to manage hardware of Proxmox, similar way as you do for Amazon EC2 (ansible supports both greatly) and you are good to go. One does not exclude another, quite the opposite, as they can live in great synergy and cut your costs dramatically (the heavier your base load, the bigger the savings) while providing production-grade resiliency.

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